The Syntax of Adjuncts

This book proposes a theory of the distribution of adverbial adjuncts in a Principles and Parameters framework, claiming that there are few syntactic principles specific to adverbials; rather, for the most part, adverbials adjoin freely to any projection. Adjuncts’ possible hierarchical positions are determined by whether they can receive a proper interpretation, according to their selectional (including scope) requirements and general compositional rules, while linear order is determined by hierarchical position along with a system of directionality principles and morphological weight, both of which apply generally to adjuncts and all other syntactic elements. A wide range of adverbial types is analysed; predicational adverbs (such as manner, and modal adverbs), domain expressions like financially, temporal, frequency, duration and focusing adverbials; participant PPs (e.g. locatives and benefactives); resultative and conditional clauses, and others, taken primarily from English, Chinese, French and Italian, with occasional reference to others (such as German and Japanese).

• A wide data base, with extensive examples from a broad range of languages and types of adverbial expressions • A comprehensive analysis, making proposals for certain principles and parameters to account for hierarchical position and linear order • Modular analysis, making the case for separating syntactic, semantic, lexical and morphological factors


Acknowledgements; 1. Introduction; 2. The semantics of predicational adverbs; 3. The scopal basis of adverb licensing; 4. Arguments for right-adjunction; 5. Noncanonical orders and the structure of VP; 6. Event-internal adjuncts; 7. Adjunct licensing in the auxrange; 8. Adjuncts in clause-initial projections; 9. Conclusions and prospects; Notes; References; Indexes.